EXHIBITION J HE JVIaGIC OP J RON AND ^TEEL Worcester Art Muse™ February Third to Ninth 19 4 IRON AND STEEL This exhibition is presented for the purpose of showing how iron and steel have "been put to many uses "by man since their origin five thousand years ago. Our modern skyscrapers and ocean liners are indeed far removed from the first hit of raw iron which some ancient savage fashioned into a rough knife, "but it is well for us to remember that our modern buildings and ships are the products of long years of toil and study in the chemistry and content of iron. Let us go back 3500 years before Christ and trace, roughly, the history of man's most valuable metal. That iron tools were used in 3500 B.C. has been proved by the samples that were found near the pyramids in Egypt. There are three periods of iron and steel in Europe, the first beginning with wrought iron, made on crude forges with the use of charcoal fires. At this time leather water bottles were used as bellows to force air into the fires. The second period was that of pure cast iron, and began in the 14th century. Methods of production had improved oy this time and bellows were operated by water power. Forges or furnaces were larger and offered closer contact between the fuel and the iron ore. As a re- sult more heat was obtained and purer iron was produced. In 1611 coke was patented for smelting, and by 1735 cast iron was made by the use of coke in the blast furnace. In 1784 a process known as "puddling" by use of an open hearth was introduced, thus making possible the control of carbon content. The year 1811 saw men making use of hitherto useless gases, rich in carbonic oxide, which burned off the top of the furnace. The third and final period of iron in Europe began with Bessemer and the open hearth which employed the exceedingly high temperature of 1500 degrees centigrade Finally came the alloys of steel and the science of metallurgy as they are known today. W. B. GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT IS MADE TO THE FOLLOWING: The John Woodman Higgins Armory: Pieces of Armor Hub Cap Steel Hinge Iron Ore Clark University: Meteorite Mr, Percy F, Marsaw: Wrought Iron Shears Miss Rosina Morris: Horse-shoe HOW ART IS MADE Film and Exhibition Program Saturday afternoons at three o'clock Free and open to the public. February 3. -Films: "The Making of Wrought Iron* " "A Visit to the Armor Gallery," and "Steel." Exhibition: The Magic of Iron and Steel * February 10. Films J "The Making of a Bronze Statue," and "Sculpture in Stone." Exhibition: Sculptor's Tools and Sculpture in the Making, February 17. Film: "The Making of a Stained Glass Window," Exhibition: Stages in the Creation of a Stained Glass Window. February 24. Films: "The Silversmith" (the late Arthur J. Stone of Gardner cooperated with the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in making this film) a,nd "Metal Craft." Exhibition: Art in Silver and Pewter. March 2. Films: "The Pottery Maker" and "People of Mexico." Exhibition: Pottery in the Making. March 9. Films: "Clothing" and "Tapestries and How They Are Made." Exhibition: Fashions of the Last Two Decades, Tapestry Today. March 16, Films: "The Temples and Tombs of Ancient Egypt," "The Daily Life of the Egyptians- Ancient and Modern," and "Exotic Egypt." Exhibition: Bringing the Past to Life. March 30. Film: "The Making of a Fresco." Exhibition: A Fresco Painting.